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is one of Germany the world's most industrialised countries, located in the center of Europe. It is bordered to the north by the North Sea, Denmark, and the Baltic Sea, to the south by Austria and Switzerland, to the west by France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, and to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic.
Germany is a democratic federal parliamentary republic, containing 16 federal-
states ( Bundeslnder), which in certain spheres act independently of the Federation or "Bund".
The Federal Republic of Germany is a member state of the
United Nations, NATO, the G8 nations, and a founding member of the European Union. More...
( Night of the Long Knives German: Nacht der langen Messer) or " Operation Hummingbird," took place in Germany between 30 June and 2 July 1934, when the Nazi regime executed at least eighty-five people for political reasons. Most of those killed were members of the " Storm Division" (SA) (German: Sturmabteilung), a Nazi paramilitary organization. Adolf Hitler moved against the SA and its leader, Ernst Rhm, because he saw the independence of the SA and the penchant of its members for street violence as a direct threat to his power. Hitler also wanted to forestall any move by army leaders, who both feared and despised the SA, to curtail his rule. Finally, Hitler used the purge to act against conservative critics of his regime, especially those loyal to Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, and to settle scores with old enemies.
The purge strengthened and consolidated the support of the army, or
Reichswehr, for Hitler. It also provided a cloak of legality for the Nazi regime, as the German courts and cabinet quickly swept aside centuries of legal prohibition against extra-judicial killings to demonstrate their loyalty to the regime. More...
Did you know ...
... that the mezzo-soprano Marga Schiml (pictured), an academic voice teacher in Karlsruhe, appeared as a Rhinemaiden and a valkyrie in the ? Jahrhundertring ... that the Alsatian village of was abandoned from 1649 to 1651? Erckartswiller ... that , an engineer for Oscar Holderer Nazi Germany who later worked on the Apollo space program, brought America's first rocket wind tunnel from Germany? ... that founded the first girls' Hedwig Kettler gymnasium in Germany? ... that Lessing J. Rosenwald instructed his literary agent to spend any amount necessary to prevent from falling into Nazi hands? Prozess gegen die Juden von Trient ... that Arnold Schnberg arranged Bach's chorale partita on Luther's hymn for Pentecost " ", a paraphrase of " Komm, Gott Schpfer, Heiliger Geist "? Veni Creator Spiritus ... that , composed by Salve Regina Arvo Prt to venerate the Golden Madonna of the Essen Cathedral, "builds very gradually to a late, majestic climax"? ... that in his , Ascension Oratorio as in his , Bach used three trumpets and timpani, and ended with a Christmas Oratorio chorale fantasia?
Germany Geography History ( Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, Nazi Germany, ...) Culture ( Arts, Languages, Literature, Religion, ...) Companies - Tourism - Sports Society - Politics - Science and technology People ( Politicians, Scientists, Musicians, ...)
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