Malayalam alphabet

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Malayalam script
Malayalam Script Sample.svg
Type Abugida
Languages Malayalam
Time period
c. 830present[1][2]
Parent systems
Sister systems
Tamil script
Sinhala script
ISO 15924 Mlym, 347
Direction Left-to-right
Unicode alias
Malayalam
U+0D00U+0D7F

The Malayalam script (Malayalam: , Malayalipi, IPA: [mlja l] ( )) is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam languagewhich is the principal language of the Indian state of Kerala, spoken by 35 million people in the world.[3] Like many other Indic scripts, it is an abugida, or a writing system that is partially alphabetic and partially syllable-based. The modern Malayalam alphabet has 13 vowel letters, 36 consonant letters, and a few other symbols. The Malayalam script is a Vattezhuttu script, which had been extended with Grantha script symbols to represent Indo-Aryan loanwords.[4] The script is also used to write several minority languages such as Paniya, Betta Kurumba, and Ravula.[5] The Malayalam language itself was historically written in several different scripts.

Overview[edit]

Characteristics[edit]

The basic characters can be classified as follows:

  • Vowels (, svaram)
    1. Independent vowel letters
    2. Dependent vowel signs
  • Consonant letters (, vyajanam)

An independent vowel letter is used as the first letter of a word that begins with a vowel. A consonant letter, despite its name, does not represent a pure consonant, but represents a consonant + a short vowel /a/ by default. For example, is the first consonant letter of the Malayalam alphabet, which represents /ka/, not a simple /k/. A vowel sign is a diacritic attached to a consonant letter to indicate that the consonant is followed by a vowel other than /a/. If the following vowel is /a/, no vowel sign is needed. The phoneme /a/ that follows a consonant by default is called an inherent vowel. In Malayalam, its phonetic value is unrounded [],[6] or [] as an allophone. To denote a pure consonant sound not followed by a vowel, a special diacritic virama is used to cancel the inherent vowel. The following are examples where a consonant letter is used with or without a diacritic.

  • ki = ka + vowel sign i
  • ku = ka + vowel sign u
  • kai = ka + vowel sign ai
  • k = ka + virama
  • ka = consonant letter ka itself, with no vowel sign

Malayalam alphabet is unicase, or does not have a case distinction. It is written from left to right, but certain vowel signs are attached to the left (the opposite direction) of a consonant letter that it logically follows. In the word (Kraam), the vowel sign () visually appears in the leftmost position, though the vowel logically follows the consonant k.

History[edit]

The Malayalam language was first written in Vatteluttu, an ancient script of Tamil. However, modern Malayalam script evolved from Grantha, a script originally used to write Sanskrit. Both Vatteluttu and Grantha evolved from Brahmi, but independently.

Vattezhuthu[edit]

Vattezhuthu (Malayalam, Vaeutt ?, round writing) is a script that had evolved from Tamil-Brahmi, and was once used extensively in the southern part of present-day Tamil Nadu and in Kerala.

Malayalam was first written in Vatteluttu. The Vazhappalli inscription issued by Rajasekhara Varman is the earliest example, dating from about 830 CE.[1][2] In the Tamil country, the modern Tamil script had supplanted Vatteluttu by the 15th century, but in the Malabar region, Vatteluttu remained in general use up to the 17th century,[7] or the 18th century.[8] A variant form of this script, Kolezhuthu, was used until about the 19th century mainly in the Kochi area and in the Malabar area.[9] Another variant form, Malayanma, was used in the south of Thiruvananthapuram.[9]

Grantha[edit]

Image: scripts comparison
Grantha, Tulu, and Malayalam scripts

According to Arthur Coke Burnell, one form of the Grantha script, originally used in the Chola kingdom, was imported into the southwest coast of India in the 8th or 9th century, which was then modified in course of time in this secluded area, where communication with the east coast was very limited.[10] This script was used by both the Malayali and Tuluva people, but was originally only applied to write Sanskrit. The Tulu form and Malayalam form of this alphabet were identical up to about 1600, and are sometimes collectively called the Tulu-Malayalam alphabet.[10][11] In Malabar, this writing system was termed Arya-eluttu ( , rya eutt),[12] meaning Arya writing (Sanskrit is Indo-Aryan language while Malayalam is a Dravidian language).

Vatteluttu was in general use, but was not suitable for literature where many Sanskrit words were used. Like Tamil-Brahmi, it was originally used to write Tamil, and as such, did not have letters for voiced or aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit but not used in Tamil. For this reason, Vatteluttu and the Grantha script were sometimes mixed, as in Manipravalam. One of the oldest examples of the Manipravalam literature, Vaishikatantram (, Vaiikatantram), dates back to the 12th century,[13][14] where the earliest form of the Malayalam script was used, which seems to have been systematized to some extent by the first half of the 13th century.[1][8]

Thunchath Ezhuthachan, a poet from around the 17th century, used Arya-eluttu to write his Malayalam poems based on Classical Sanskrit literature.[10] For a few letters missing in Arya-eluttu (a, a, a), he used Vatteluttu. His works became unprecedentedly popular to the point that the Malayali people eventually started to call him the father of the Malayalam language, which also popularized Arya-eluttu as a script to write Malayalam. However, Grantha was imperfect as it was as an alphabet to write a Dravidian language, not having distinctions between e and , and between o and . The Malayalam script as it is today was perfected in the middle of the 19th century when Hermann Gundert invented the new vowel signs to distinguish them.[10]

By the 19th century, old scripts like Kolezhuthu had been supplanted by Arya-eluttuthat is, the current Malayalam script. Nowadays, it is widely used in the press of the Malayali population in Kerala.[15]

The resemblance between the Malayalam script and the Tulu script is obvious. Some authors believe that the Tulu script is older and the Malayalam script evolved from it or was influenced by it,[16][17] though the oldest written Tulu document available, Tulu Mahabharato, is from around 1500,[18] relatively new compared to the history of the Malayalam writing system.

Orthography reform[edit]

In 19691971 and in 1981, the Government of Kerala reformed the orthography of Malayalam.[19][20] In the traditional orthography, certain consonants followed by u, , or r are represented by special glyphs (consonant-vowel ligatures), where the corresponding basic consonant letter is transformed irregularly. For example:

  • ka <image: ku (old)> ku
  • na <image: nu (old)> nu
  • a <image: u (old)> u

This kind of irregular glyph was simplified in the new orthography, where a vowel sign is always a separate symbol, never fused with the preceding letter:

  • ka ku
  • na nu
  • a u

Also, most of traditional consonant-consonant ligatures, especially less common ones only used to write words of Sanskrit origin, were split into non-ligated forms. For example:

  • g + da = gda (Traditional: <image: gda>)
  • l + ta = lta (Traditional: <image: lta>)

The new orthography, puthiya lipi (Malayalam , putiya lipi ?), is now used commonly, but has not completely replaced the traditional system, pazhaya lipi ( , paaya lipi)[dubious ].[21]

Malayalam letters[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Vowel letters and vowel signs[edit]

The following tables show the independent vowel letters and the corresponding dependent vowel signs (diacritics) of the Malayalam script, with romanizations in ISO 15919, transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).

Monophthongs
  Short Long
Independent Dependent Indep. Dependent
Vowel sign Example Vowel sign Example
a a
/a/
(none) pa
/pa/

/a/
 
 
p
/pa/
i i
/i/
 
 
pi
/pi/

/i/
 
 
p
/pi/
u u
/u/
 
 
pu
/pu/

/u/
 
 
p
/pu/
r r
/r/
 
 
pr
/pr/
r
/r/
 
 
pr
/pr/
l l
/l/
 
 
pl
/pl/
l
/l/
 
 
pl
/pl/
e e
/e/
 
 
pe
/pe/

/e/
 
 
p
/pe/
o o
/o/
 
 
po
/po/

/o/
 
 
p
/po/
Image: school sign
A school sign. Notice the word-initial a in akkdami, and the vowel sign in Kraa.

r, r, l, l , used to write Sanskrit words, are treated as vowels. They are phonetically not vowels in Malayalam or in Classical Sanskrit, but originally they were (see Proto-Indo-European language and Vedic Sanskrit). The letters and signs for r, l, l are very rare, and are not considered as part of the modern orthography.[22]

The vowel signs , i, are placed to the right of a consonant letter to which it is attached. The vowel signs e, , ai are placed to the left of a consonant letter. The vowel signs o and consist of two parts: the first part goes to the left of a consonant letter and the second part goes to the right of it. In the reformed orthography, the vowel signs u, , r are simply placed to the right of the consonant letter, while they often make consonant-vowel ligatures in the traditional orthography.

Diphthongs
  Independent Dependent
Vowel sign Example
ai ai
/ai/
 
 
pai
/pai/
au au
/au/
 
(archaic)
pau
/pau/
 
(modern)
pau
/pau/

It is important to note the vowel duration as it can be used to differentiate words that would otherwise be the same. For example, /kalam/ means "earthenware pot" while /kalam/ means "time" or "season".[23]

Anusvaram[edit]

Anusvara
a a
/am/
 
/m/
pa
/pam/

An anusvaram ( anusvram), or an anusvara, originally denoted the nasalization where the preceding vowel was changed into a nasalized vowel, and hence is traditionally treated as a kind of vowel sign. In Malayalam, however, it simply represents a consonant /m/ after a vowel, though this /m/ may be assimilated to another nasal consonant. It is a special consonant letter, different from a "normal" consonant letter, in that it is never followed by an inherent vowel or another vowel. In general, an anusvara at the end of a word in an Indian language is transliterated as in ISO 15919, but a Malayalam anusvara at the end of a word is transliterated as m without a dot.

Visargam[edit]

visarga
a a
/ah/
 
/h/
pa
/pah/

A visargam (, visargam), or visarga, represents a consonant /h/ after a vowel, and is transliterated as . Like the anusvara, it is a special symbol, and is never followed by an inherent vowel or another vowel.

Consonants[edit]

Basic consonant letters[edit]

The following tables show the basic consonant letters of the Malayalam script, with romanizations in ISO 15919, transcriptions in IPA, and Unicode CHARACTER NAMES. The character names used in the report of the Government of Kerala committee (2001) are shown in lowercase italics when different from Unicode character names.[22] Those alternative names are based on the traditional romanization used by the Malayali people. For example, tha in Thiruvananthapuram is neither ISO tha nor Unicode THA, but tha in this sense (). The ISCII (IS 13194:1991) character names are given in parentheses when different from the above.

Varga consonants
  Voiceless Voiced
Unaspirated Aspirated Unaspirated Aspirated Nasal
Velar ka
/ka/ KA
 
kha
/ka/ KHA
 
ga
/a/ GA
 
gha
/a/ GHA
 
a
/a/ NGA
 
Palatal
or
Postalveolar
ca
/ta/ CA
cha
cha
/ta/ CHA
chha
ja
/da/ JA
 
jha
/da/ JHA
 
a
/a/ NYA
nha (nja)
Retroflex a
/a/ TTA
ta (hard ta)
ha
/a/ TTHA
tta (hard tha)
a
/a/ DDA
hard da
ha
/a/ DDHA
hard dda (hard dha)
a
/a/ NNA
hard na
Dental ta
/ta/ TA
tha (soft ta)
tha
/ta/ THA
ttha (soft tha)
da
/da/ DA
soft da
dha
/da/ DHA
soft dda (soft dha)
na
/na, na/[A] NA
soft na
Labial pa
/pa/ PA
 
pha
/pa/ PHA
 
ba
/ba/ BA
 
bha
/ba/ BHA
 
ma
/ma/ MA
 

The consonants /, , / are retroflex. In Malayalm, they are produced by touching the underside of the tip of the tongue to the front part of the hard palate (apico-palatal).

Other consonants
ya
/ja/[A] YA
 
ra
/a/[B] RA
 
la
/la/[C] LA
 
va
/a/[D] VA
 
a
/a/[E] SHA
soft sha (sha)
a
/a/[F] SSA
sha (hard sha)
sa
/sa/[G] SA
 
ha
/a/ HA
 
a
/a/[H] LLA
hard la
a
/a/[J] LLLA
zha
[K] a, a
/ra, ta/ RRA
(hard ra)
a
/na/ NNNA
 
a
/ta/ TTTA
 
  • A Dental nasal or alveolar nasal, depending on the word.
  • B Alveolar tap.
  • C The tip of the tongue almost touches the teeth ([l]), forward than the English l.
  • D [].
  • E [].
  • F Voiceless apico-palatal approximant [].[24]
  • G Dental sibilant fricative [s].
  • H Apico-palatal [].
  • I This glyph is a ligature (KA + VIRAMA + SSA), but is sometimes listed as a basic unit. Often pronounced /a/.
  • J Voiced apico-palatal approximant [].[24] This consonant is usually described as //, but also can be approximated by //.[25]
  • K (1) Repetition of this letter ( + ) often represents a geminated voiceless alveolar plosive, /ta/; (2) chillu-n + this letter ( + ) often represents /nda/; (3) otherwise alveolar trill (apical) /ra/. Optionally, (1) may be transliterated as a instead of a, (2) as na (not na) instead of na.
  • L Corresponds to Tamil a . Used rarely in scholarly texts to represent the alveolar nasal, as opposed to the dental nasal.[26] In ordinary texts both are represented by na .
  • M Used rarely in scholarly texts to represent the voiceless alveolar plosive, as opposed to the voiceless dental plosive represented by ta . In ordinary texts this sound is represented by a .[26]

Chillus[edit]

A chillu, or a chillaksharam (, cillakaram), is a special consonant letter that represents a pure consonant independently, without help of a virama. Unlike a consonant represented by an ordinary consonant letter, this consonant is never followed by an inherent vowel. Anusvara and visarga fit this definition but are not usually included. ISCII and Unicode 5.0 treat a chillu as a glyph variant of a normal (base) consonant letter.[27] In Unicode 5.1 and later, however, chillu letters are treated as independent characters, encoded atomically.[28]

There are at least six known chillu letters. Chillu-k is rare. The other five are quite common.

Chillu letters
Letter Unicode name Base Remarks
CHILLU NN a  
CHILLU N na  
CHILLU RR ra Historically from ra, not from a (RRA) .
CHILLU L la Historically from ta .
CHILLU LL a Historically from a
CHILLU K ka  

Chandrakkala[edit]

As virama[edit]

Chandrakkala   (, candrakkala) is a diacritic attached to a consonant letter to show that the consonant is not followed by an inherent vowel or any other vowel (for example, ka k). This kind of diacritic is common in Indic scripts, generically called virama in Sanskrit, or halant in Hindi.

Half-u[edit]

At the end of a word, the same symbol sometimes represents a very short vowel, known as half-u, or samvruthokaram (, savrtkram). The exact pronunciation of this vowel varies from dialect to dialect, but it is approximately [][29] or [], and transliterated as (for example, na n). Optionally, a vowel sign u is inserted, as in (= +   +  ). According to one author, this alternative form is historically more correct, though the simplified form without a vowel sign u is common nowadays.[30] This means that the same spelling may represent either n or n depending on the context. Generally, it is n at the end of a word, and n elsewhere; always represents n.

Ligatures[edit]

Consonant ligatures[edit]

Like in other Indic scripts, a virama is used in the Malayalam script to cancelor killthe inherent vowel of a consonant letter and represent a consonant without a vowel, so-called a dead consonant. For example,

  1. is a consonant letter na,
  2. is a virama; therefore,
  3. (na + virama) represents a dead consonant n.

If this n is further followed by another consonant letter, for example, ma , the result may look like , which represents nma as na + virama + ma. In this case, two elements n and ma are simply placed one by one, side by side. Alternatively, nma can be also written as a ligature .

Generally, when a dead consonant letter C1 and another consonant letter C2 are conjoined, the result may be either:

  1. A fully conjoined ligature of C1+C2;
  2. Half-conjoined
    • C1-conjoining: a modified form (half form) of C1 attached to the original form (full form) of C2
    • C2-conjoining: a modified form of C2 attached to the full form of C1; or
  3. Non-ligated: full forms of C1 and C2 with a visible virama.[31]

If the result is fully or half-conjoined, the (conceptual) virama which made C1 dead becomes invisible, only logically existing in a character encoding scheme such as Unicode. If the result is non-ligated, a virama is visible, attached to C1. The glyphs for nma has a visible virama if not ligated (), but if ligated, the virama disappears (). Usually the difference between those forms is superficial and both are semantically identical, just like the meaning of the English word palaeography does not change even if it is spelled palography, with the ligature .

Common consonant ligatures[edit]

Several consonant-consonant ligatures are used commonly even in the new orthography.

Common ligatures
  kka ka a cca ca a a a
Non-ligated
Ligated
Common ligatures (continued)
  a tta nta nna ppa mpa mma
Non-ligated
Ligated

The ligature mpa was historically derived from npa . The ligatures cca, bba, yya, and vva are special in that a doubled consonant is denoted by a triangle sign below a consonant letter.

  cca bba yya vva
Non-ligated
Ligated
Consonant + ya, va, la, ra[edit]

(1) The consonant letter ya is generally C2-conjoining after a consonant in both orthographies. For example,

  • k + ya = kya
  • p + ya = pya

In kya , a variant form of ya ( ) is placed after the full form of ka , just like ki is written ka followed by the vowel sign i . In other words, the variant form of ya ( ) used after a consonant letter can be considered as a diacritic. Since it is placed after the base character, it is sometimes referred to as a post-base form. An exception is yya (see above).

(2) Similarly, va after a consonant takes a post-base form:

  • k + va = kva
  • p + va = pva

An exception is vva (see above).

(3) The consonant letter la after a consonant traditionally takes a below-base form. These forms are used also in the new orthography, though some fonts do not support them.

  • k + la = kla
  • p + la = pla
  • l + la = lla (Not <triangle below >)

(4) A consonant letter ra after a consonant usually takes a pre-base form in the reformed orthography, while this combination makes a fully conjoined ligature in the traditional orthography.

  • k + ra = kra (Traditional: <image: kra (old)>)
  • p + ra = pra (Traditional: <image: pra (old)>)
na and a[edit]

The ligature na is written as n + a and pronounced /nda/. The ligature a is written as + a .

  na a
Non-ligated
Ligated <image: na>
Digraph

In those two ligatures, a small a is written below the first letter (chillu-n if it is a dead n). Alternatively, the letter a is sometimes written to the right of the first letter, making a digraph (just like used instead of in Greek). The spelling is therefore read either na (two separate letters) or na (digraph) depending on the word. Similarly, is read either aa or a.[28]

Dot reph[edit]

In the traditional orthography, a dead consonant r before a consonant sometimes takes an above-base form, known as a dot reph, which looks like a short vertical line or a dot. Generally, a chillu-r is used instead of a dot reph in the reformed orthography.

  • r + ga = rga <image: rga (old)> (Reformed: )
  • r + ja = rja <image: rja (old)> (Reformed: )

Consonant-vowel ligatures[edit]

Other symbols[edit]

Praslesham Corresponds to Devanagari avagraha, used when a Sanskrit phrase containing an avagraha is written in Malayalam script. The symbol indicates the elision of the word-initial vowel a after a word that ends in , , or , and is transliterated as an apostrophe (), or sometimes as a colon + an apostrophe (:).
(Malayalam, pralam ?)
Malayalam date mark Used in an abbreviation of a date.
Danda Archaic punctuation marks.
Double danda

Malayalam numbers and fractions are written as follows. These are archaic and no more commonly used.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 100 1000

Unicode[edit]

Malayalam script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

Block[edit]

The Unicode block for Malayalam is U+0D00U+0D7F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points.

Malayalam[1]
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+0D0x
U+0D1x
U+0D2x
U+0D3x
U+0D4x     
U+0D5x
U+0D6x
U+0D7x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 6.3

Chillus in Unicode[edit]

For example, avan (he) is written as a + va + chillu-n , where chillu-n represents the n sound without a vowel. In other Indic scripts, the same word would be possibly written as a + va + na + virama. However, in Malayalam script, that sequence represents a different word, avan (to him), and is not interchangeable with avan.[32] This is because in modern Malayalam script, the sign for a virama also works as the sign for a vowel at the end of a word, and is not able to cleanly kill the inherent vowel in this case.[29]

To differentiate a pure consonant (chillu) and a consonant with , zero-width joiner (ZWJ) and zero-width non-joiner (ZWNJ) were used before Unicode 5.1.[27] However, this system was problematic. Among other things, glyph variants specified by ZWJ or ZWNJ are supposed to be non-semantic, whereas a chillu (expressed as letter + virama + ZWJ) and the same consonant followed by a (expressed as letter + virama + ZWNJ) are often semantically different. After a long debate,[29][30] six chillus now have their own code points starting from Unicode 5.1, though applications should also be prepared to handle data in the representation specified in Unicode 5.0.[28] This means, fonts should display chillus in both sequences; while an input method should output standard chillus.

The ligature na <image: na> is very common and supported by most Malayalam fonts in one way or another, but exactly how it should be encoded was not clear in Unicode 5.0 and earlier, and two incompatible implementations are currently in use.[33] In Unicode 5.1 (2008), the sequence to represent it was explicitly redefined as chillu-n + virama + a (),[28] but is not supported yet (as of 2011), by any popular operating systems, fonts or input methods.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ager, Simon (1998). "Malayalam alphabet, pronunciation and language". Omniglot. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  2. ^ a b "Vazhapally Temple". Vazhappally Sree Mahadeva Temple. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  3. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). "Malayalam". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.). SIL International. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  4. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 85. 
  5. ^ Ethnologue (16th ed.): "Paniya", "Kurumba, Betta", and "Ravula".
  6. ^ Canepari (2005), pp. 396, 140.
  7. ^ Burnell (1874), p. 39.
  8. ^ a b "The Script". Malayalam Resource Centre. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  9. ^ a b "Alphabets". Government of Kerala. Retrieved 2009-10-29. 
  10. ^ a b c d Burnell (1874), p. 35.
  11. ^ "Grantha alphabet". Encyclopdia Britannica Online. Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc. 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  12. ^ "EPIGRAPHY - Inscriptions in Grantha Script". Department of Archaeology, Government of Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 2009-11-11. 
  13. ^ Nampoothiri, N. M. (1999), "Cultural Traditions in Medieval Kerala" (PDF) in Cherian, P. J., Perspectives on Kerala History: The Second Millennium, Kerala Council for Historical Research, ISBN 81-85499-35-7, retrieved 2009-11-20.
  14. ^ "Development of Literature". Malayalam Resource Centre. Retrieved 2009-11-20. 
  15. ^ Andronov, Mikhail Sergeevich. A Grammar of the Malayalam Language in Historical Treatment. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 1996.
  16. ^ Kekunnaya, K. Padmanabha & Joshy, M. Prabhakara (19992000). "The Tulu Script". Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  17. ^ "SEI: Unicode Scripts Research". Script Encoding Initiative (Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley). 2007. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  18. ^ "Tulu Academy yet to realise its goal". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. November 13, 2004. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  19. ^ "Malayalam ScriptAdoption of New Script for Use" (PDF). Government of Kerala. 1971. Retrieved 2009-10-25. 
  20. ^ "Script reform". Malayalam Resource Centre. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  21. ^ John, Vijay. "The Concept of (Lipi)". Learn Malayalam Online!. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  22. ^ a b "Report of the Committee on Malayalam Character Encoding and Keyboard Layout Standardisation". Kerala Gazette (Government of Kerala) 46 (2023). December 18, 2001. Retrieved 2009-10-08. [dead link] See also the May 2001 version (PDF).
  23. ^ Asher, R. E. Malayalam. Ed. T. C. Kumari 1934-. London ; New York : Routledge, 1997.
  24. ^ a b Canepari (2005), pp. 397, 185.
  25. ^ Mohanan (1996), p.421.
  26. ^ a b Everson, Michael (2007). "Proposal to add two characters for Malayalam to the BMP of the UCS" (PDF). ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3494. Retrieved 2009-09-09. 
  27. ^ a b "South Asian Scripts-I" (PDF). The Unicode Standard 5.0 Electronic Edition. Unicode, Inc. 19912007. pp. 4244. Retrieved 2009-09-08. 
  28. ^ a b c d "Malayalam Chillu Characters". Unicode 5.1.0. Unicode, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  29. ^ a b c Muller, Eric (2006). "Malayalam cillaksarams" (PDF). JTC1/SC2/WG2 N3126 L2/06-207. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  30. ^ a b Chitrajakumar, R. & Gangadharan, N. (2005), "Chandrakkala. Samvruthokaram. Chillaksharam." (PDF), L2/05-210, retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  31. ^ Constable, Peter (2004). "Clarification of the Use of Zero Width Joiner in Indic Scripts" (PDF). Public Review Issue #37. Unicode, Inc. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  32. ^ Johny, Cibu C. (2005), "Unicode Public Review Issue #66: Encoding of Chillu Forms in Malayalam", retrieved 2009-09-16.  See also L2/05-085 (PDF).
  33. ^ "Encoding of Chillu Forms in Malayalam". Public Review Issue #66. Unicode, Inc. 2005. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]